This essay aims to cover ISIS as the focused group and will emphasize on its history of group along with its ideology and impact on local or global level. In line with this, the implied strategies and targets of the group will also be evaluated while acquiring a critical tone. It will be assured to analyze each aspect with complete consideration and unbiased tone. However, the details will also analyze that how ISIS and it functional plans are being successful without hurdles and how the terrorist activities are impacting on the global and local sectors. On the same side, the structure of the ISIS will also be patterned to evaluate its origination and the leaders of the community.
A) Group history
The evolution of one of the Islamic state ISIS came from the scraps of Al-Qaeda in Iraq. A local derivative of al Qaeda was originated the Abu Musab al Zarqawi in the year 2004. Initially, it was first kept into anonymity for many years after the heave of groups of U.S. who traveled to Iraq in the year 2007. Afterwards, it started to resurface in the year 2011. After the passage of few years, it took benefit of growing unsteadiness in the Iraq and Syria to do attacks and to strengthen its position. Also, the group eventually changes its name to the ISIS (Islamic State of Iraq and Syria) in the year 2013. In line with this, the ISIS introduced a hateful plan on Mosul and Tikrit in the month of June, 2014 (Zelin, 2018). On the same side, leader of ISI i.e. Abu Bakar al Baghdadi announced the establishment of a caliphate extending from Aleppo in Syria to Diyala in Iraq and also, rewrote the group the Islamic State. On the whole, IS started as an organization of Iraq and this thing molded the movement today. The groups of jihadis thrived in Iraq after the year 2003, U.S.’s invasions and many of them eventually merged around the Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, he was the jihadist who eventually spent his life in the Afghanistan in the year 1990s and then again in the year 2001. Although, it was Bin Laden who supported Zarqawi through funding enough money to originate the organization.
A U.S.-led combination started airstrikes in against of ISIS in Iraq in 2014 and the continued to expand the campaign to Syria in the subsequent month i.e. August. There came a day in the month of October i.e. on 15th the U.S. initiated a campaign which was named as ‘Operation Inherent Resolve’. However, within the year, U.S. performed more than 8,000 airstrikes in Iraq and Syria. It was observed that the ISIS experienced key losses within the border of Syria and Turkey. Also, it was found that at the end of the year 2015, Iraqi strengths developed in evoking Ramadi. But, in the Syria, it was found that the ISIS increased near Aleppo and still confidently maintained its hold on the Raqqa and in other monopolies. In the year 2015, the group expanded into a system of associates, minimum in eight other countries. Its branches, followers and associates progressively more executed the attacks across the borders of its ostensible caliphate.
Ideology of ISIS
The Islamic State i.e. ISIS portrays itself as the spokesperson of Islam and it deliberately focuses especially on the group of Salafism and specifically on Wahhabism. It is exaggeratedly one-dimensional to criticize any one ideology for especially for the ISIS’ extremism. The extremism of ISIS is the invention of a hybridization of doctrinaire Salafism and other Islamist currents. The IS depends on the literature of Jihadi of ideologues who encouraged its carriage and as well as the priests who do not formally show the support for the group. These clerics adhere to a set of notions which importantly extend from conventional Islam and several are even direct heirs of the Sahwa, an academic religious movement that started in the earnest in 1970s. The Sahwa fused its concepts with the change ideas, linked with politics and Islam, particularly. But, initially the currents affected by the Muslim brotherhood. The intermarriage polarized and developed innovative and unpredictable religious currents.
Politically, obedient Salafism provided a route to the political Takfirism, these one ideology intakes the picture of caliphate, rebellion, and jihad. It is assumed that the Islamic State is part of inheritance of takfiri schools and the ideas to develop from al-Qaeda. Since the ideology of Islamic State rigidly appears separately, therefore its rejection to twist forms a culture of takfirism inside the takfirism. In line with this, the mostly practiced ideology is to promote and to encourage a political ideology and a worldview that vigorously portrays and excommunes the muslims. The group is at mission to form and exploit the pre-obtaining sectarian cracks in the Middle East. The Islamic state taps into communal abhorrence religious ideas to engage and to defend its acts, in action to promote sympathy and to counteract the forces that purposefully reject it. This has occurred as the powerful tool in outbidding al-Qaeda for the recruits.
Also, it exploits the material of cleric in sequence to defend the takfir of the Saudi state and as well as of Muslim leaders all across the Middle East and to encourage the rejection of official organizations and forces. Specifically for the Islamic State, clerics provide explanations for its savagery, particularly in against of the fellow Muslims. Also, the group narrates the stories from initial Islamic history in sequence to defend its brutal practices to the new recruits.
Local and global impact
The IS impact is widely spreading. In several of Muslim countries where the IS doesn’t even have hug access, it is rising radically in the population and even creating several of troubles. The success of Islamic State in Syria and Iraq eventually triggered many evaluators in the Washington and also encourage the Obama administration to confront its hesitation in action get more militarily involved in the Iraq and in Syria as well. But there is also someone for whom the impact of IS is more threatening and i.e. the country of U.S (Alfifi,, 2018). However, years ago, the incident of 9/11 has passed but, this one incident has made huge global impact in regards of terrorism. One of the small group of terrorists and its success in its mission has changed the whole perspective for the world. This even ended up in creating a negative image of Islam and spread the hatred for Islamophobia. Internationally, this increased the security concerns for everyone and its often ended up creating hurdles for the Muslims. Globally, this could be stated that the effects of terrorist activities and its association with the ISIS has made the journey of expanding businesses globally or either possessing job opportunities in the international platforms and also it created trust issues.
In line with this, there were many political conflicts came into view which depicted a negative yet highly conflicting relation in between the Islamic states and other countries. However, the analyzed reports even claimed that ISIS and its inappropriate activities is the foremost reason behind the huge conflicts in between the Islamic countries and other international states. It is belief that the Islamic State solely is acquiring the setbacks and is rapidly increasing its use of tools of globalization along with Bitcoin and the encrypted money. In action, to take fight and to influence huge people.
Conversely, locally it is said that the impact of IS could be seen and observed through political activities of the regions and also through the platforms where IS has huge access such as, in the institutes which are deliberately focusing on providing the Islamic teachings to the students. On the same side, the social campaigns which are locally running on the social media platforms or even on the mediums of internet where youth is being targeted. This is even being performed by introducing or exposing the concept of cryptocurrency through targeting different areas. However, similarly, the political impacts are also evaluated which indicated that it eventually impacts on the economical conditions of the countries as ISIS has been working on the such as, it has found that the ISIS is being funded heavily by many of the organizations. Also, in the name of Islamic teaching the community is collecting funds and it working on the succession of its missions. It is said that more than half of the amount of funds is donated to the ISIS and this eventually led in making it possible for the Islamic State to expand its roots and to work on more strategies (Khan, and Estrada, 2016).
Baghdadi is the ultimate political and religious leader in the ISIS territory. The caliph has practically unrestricted power, but in practice he depends on the deputies like Abu Muslim al-Tukermani, who look after the areas of ISIS in the Iraq to handle the management of its subject. The Islamic State has a Shura Council that could supposedly depose the caliph, but all members are selected by Baghdadi. The commands of leadership of ISIS is directly being controlled by the fighters in Iraq and Syria, via its aptitude to direct its associated abroad is not clear. In the month of March, 2015, ISIS made a claim of association with the responsibility for the Bardo Museum attacks in the Tunis and the also of the attacks of mosque in the Yemen. However, U.S. officials were cynical of the degree to which the attacks were coordinated by the ISIS leadership in Iraq and Syria. The upper echelon of ISIS management involves Baghdadi’s advisers, his deputies for evaluating the actions in Syria and in Iraq along with the council of Shura. This theoretically has the authority to depose Baghdadi. Islamic state of Iraq and Syria has one sharia council and also it is responsible for the security, affairs of military and the finance.
Abu Muslim al Turkemani: The person is responsible to look after the actions in Iraq. The reports have claimed that the Turkemani was killed by a strike of U.S. in the year 2014. Also, he is known as the Fadhil Ahmad al-Hayali Baghdadi.
Abu Ali al Anbari: Anbari was responsible to evaluate the operations and processes in the Syria.
Abu Mohammed al-Adnani: He was the representative of ISIS.
Abu Arkan al Ameri: Ameri is the head of Shura council.
Abd al-Rahman Mustafa al Qaduli: A supreme leader and the previous deputy of Zarqai in al Qaeda, particularly of Iraq.
Tarkhan Tayumurazovich Batirashvili: He is the senior leader of Syrian operation and as well as the member of Shura council.
C) The group tactics & targets
In sequence to stay militarily pertinent, the ISIS gradually more prefers to initiate separated suicide attacks along with the hit and run operations. Initially in January, the group of ISIS circulated a list which showed a celebration of nearly 800 attacks in the year 2017, involving the ones who were in against of the Iraqi military, forces of Kurdish in the Syria and the allies and regime of Assad (Wood, 2015). However, AMMAN since one of the self-proclaimed state i.e. caliphate revealed that that over wide envelops of Syria and Iraq in the month of July, 2014 was formally reduced the group of terrorists in the other remaining occurrence in Syria has been covered in the controversy.In the present time, in spite of the complete defeat of territories in Syria and Iraq, and the following dispersion of its combatant all across the eastern Syrian wasteland and al-Anbar region in western Iraq, ISIS still implies a danger.
Apart from the quick terror attacks, there is a high risk that previous combatants will rejoin and return an even more harming force than when they initially invented Mosul, Iraq in the year 2014. In this scenario, the general leader of US-backed SDF (Syrian Democratic Forces) Mazlum Abdi desired take control of his forces and to look after the al-Baghouz. The ISIS has performed out numerous attacks and bombings all across the Syria in the apparent months that have beleaguered all parties of the conflict. It is said that in the Syrian government forces at least 172 soldiers were killed by the connected and militias were harmed because of the attack of ISIS. Also, the group was boarded on what it called. In the month of April 2019, in which it performed out numerous attacks on the SDF in Raqqa al-Hasakah and Deir Ez-Zor regions.
Revolution in tactics of ISIS
After losing its province, ISIS switched its strategies from full-scale armed attacks to hit and run or guerilla-style attacks. Meanwhile the strategically revolution is quite conventional the number of current attacks attributed to ISIS has prompted queries. Daesh has abandoned the notion of possessing onto the province and has started to operate as a gang of arm. On the same side, the cells of ISIS in al-Badiya depend on the rapid movement from one region to another so that no one can explore the location of their combatants. This is a source in the Revolutionary Commando Army, which is located in al-Tanf. It is believed that the features of al-Badiya’s topography also play a crucial role in the operations of ISIS. Although, even as the terrorist group objectives its soldiers, the Syrian government is advantaging from the presence of ISIS.
Also, it was found that the in July 2019, ISIS combatants performed out several of attacks on the communities in the eastern scenery of the southern Suweida governorate, subsequent by at least two suicide bombings in Suweida city middle, killing further than 200 people and hurtful 300 others, civilians and soldiers comparable. In line with this, about 40 women and children were snatched as per according the reports issued by SOHR and local links (Byman, 2016).
Although, the local armed groups and distinguished people in the governorate blamed the Syrian government of being at the back of attacks, highlighting the fact that government removed its armed from eastern Suweida.
In sequence to the reliance on the innovative hit-and-run method attacks, ISIS has started to spot its attacks on the command reserves and supply lines. In the month of July, 2014, a news was stated by the Syrian agency, the report claimed that there was one of the pipelines of gas which was streaming through the Shaer gas field to the Ebla gas plan, as a purpose for terrorist activity. Although, after one week, another target was found in the transportation service i.e. in train. It was found that a train was attacked and it consequent in harming the crew of train. The Syrian authorities later than claimed that it was a terrorist attack.
Conclusively, this could be stated that the impact of ISIS is could be seen on the huge scale in both; local and global perspectives. The analysis declared that the reason which is making the missions and terrorist activities of ISIS successful is because of the support that is being provided by different politicians or the states. Also, the critical evaluation has revealed that the activities of ISIS and rapid succession in its planned targets is highly impacting on many countries and is even influencing youth by reaching them with the innovative techniques. On the same side, is also believed that the continuous success of the community could lead to some serious yet negative consequences. In a nutshell, this could be uttered that the ISIS is playing a huge role in the terrorist attacks or activities which are being performed audaciously and also, this has found that such activities are creating many hurdles for locals and it even resulting into countless deaths and several other losses.