This paper will focus on race and law between the era of 1880 and 1990 in the UU mainly in the region of the South which has seen the vast ratio of discrimination among African Americans in every aspect of life. The discrimination mainly is a practice in the form of Segregation law and in a legal aspect under the law of Jim Crow. These laws and segregation are mainly carried to create a racial difference with black in all aspects of society. This also creates a difference in practice with all areas like education, voting rights and to attain economic status. The laws and regulation that were practiced under the name of Jim Crow segregation created a large difference in every field of African American life which also influence their growth and identity in the society which also has led to major political and societal changes that later leads to abolishment of the overall law of discrimination.
The discriminatory law in the area of race has also lead to the downfall of the black in the particular era and limited the pace of the development and progress of the black ethnic group. This is mostly based and evident in the region of the south where the larger disparity is based on black against white. The law and regulations were clearly strict and discriminatory in all economics, societal, political factors for black people with also considering them more in the slavery aspect. The labor law in relation to the black was also low as a clear gap of income exists between their white counterparts (Boyer, et.al.).
The Jim Crow practicing region mainly discriminates in every practical aspect of human life from the very beginning since education then carries forward also in public spaces like the transport system and restroom. This also abolishes the right to vote for black citizens by giving them consideration only in the area of low labor and slavery. The discriminatory law of the Jim Crow also provides historical evidence that black people are at a clear disadvantage in every aspect of life which also influences their economic conditions in a negative manner.
The law situation in the US in the era of 1880 and 1990 is very much discriminating mainly in the states of the south region. The law is very much based on the factor of ethnic and race basis which does not promote or accept diversity in any part of the society in this region. This also has affected the overall economic and political conditions which creates a clear disparity among black members of the society. These laws also promote discrimination on bases of race and ethnicity and termed these features as the main basic and fixed characteristics of the society which gives identity to every region and part of the society.
The law in the southern states also prefer whites over black in any economic activity and laws were also developed on the basis of the race factor. The economic conditions of African Americans were also very much in bad shape as they tend to do odd jobs with no consideration of the availing better opportunities. The law also limits the right of black in the political aspect as they are not allowed to participate and vote in any political activity. The law practice in the region is mostly based on discrimination and creates segregation among all black members of society.
The incentives in the area of economics and politics are also limited to white as they give no consideration to the rights of the black people. Harsh labor conditions were provided to black people with no consideration to the safe working practice. The black also was manipulated on the basis of racial appearance in economic activities as separate chambers of trade activities were also allotted to people belonging to the African American ethnicity. This law limits the active participation of the black in the economic area which I highly evident from the factor of the high poverty ratio of these people in the south region at this particular time (Leonard, et.al.).
Comparative Race and Law
The comparative race and law are not just limited to Africans its discriminatory effect extends to every other non-white racial group. This is due to the existing laws and regulations that are considered as a main part of the law in every societal institute which is prevalent for a long time and seen its peak in the time of the 1880s till 1990. The discrimination is also in the area of economic conditions as the black is usually paid low income than any other ethnic group mainly in against the white race. This also leads them to face downward mobility in all areas mainly to have better economic conditions as well as promote their cultural value (Montano, et.al.t).
The comparative law is extended in all major laws that define the societal value in terms of making choice and freely practice according to one needs. The comparative law limits growth opportunities to the Africans as they are not allowed to participate in any social activity mainly in political practice. The law is mostly based on prejudice where skills are not considered but more in the area of clearly giving low compensation irrespective of the law. Education law is also developed on the basis of race discrimination which leads to high poverty among the black in the particular region. The black is also not allowed to take any official post which is considered as an attack on the supremacy of the white. The discriminatory law in terms of the race also extends to criminal law cases where the practice of lynching is a common practice towards African American convicts.
The era of 1880 and 1900
The 1880 and 1900 in terms of comparative race and law provide high consideration to the context of a discriminatory law that existed for the black in the South. The historical context also provides that the census in the particular time is also used to carry out to discriminate the black population with that of the white ones. This is mainly in the aspect of the political polling and elections where black is not allowed to vote due to the discrimination in the law practice. This is from the factor of historical evidence of the Jim Crow law which provides the factor of discrimination as the voters have to register them and eth black are deprived of this registration process. The discrimination is also practiced in the area of educations as the separate education system is developing and consideration to black was given in the higher educational process (Anton, et.al.).
The Jim Crow law practicing also creates a disparity in the political scenario as black is not allowed to take a leadership position in political practice. The law jim crow is also discriminatory as it does not provides consideration to the identity and accepting them as part of the society. This can also be seen in various clauses as to being deprived of voting rights, segregate system in public institutes like schools and also is practiced in the area of societal services like the transport sector. The discrimination has led them to lead the life in a dilapidated situation where economic conditions are bad as the majority of black-led life in poverty situation due to no access to various facilities like a better pay system and education.
The comparative in race and law in the era of 1880 to 1900 provides that economic and political situation creates an element of the struggle for every ethnic group majorly the black ethnic group. The Jim Crow law increases the discrimination at every institute that was commonly known as Jim Crow institutes and was considered as the main practical aspect of the discriminatory law. These laws were mostly based on the factor of considering white supremacy and lead to major political and historical changes in the region of the South where the major black population resides. The law in practical aspect is mainly has created many major reforms in creating the discriminatory effect (Akcigit, et.al.).
The effect of the discriminatory law has created a major difference in the economic and political conditions of the black people. This can be seen from the aspect of the great migration which is mainly due to the discrimination for the black in every societal approach. The census of the 1880 and 1990 also provides that the discrimination on the base of race is a practice from the perspective of the inter generational basis which limits the growth of black in every practical outcome. This also leads to the great migration from the south to the northern parts mainly because of practice that is carried out to discriminate black people from white on the basis of race.
The division created from the discriminatory law from the Jim Crow affects all the life aspect of the black people. This can be seen in racial differences that existed between black and white people as white is allowed to work in a higher position but not black. This also forms the base of low economic conditions for African generation to generation and affected their mobility in terms of bettering their economic factor of the status.
This is due to better positions available to the white against the blacks to have upward mobility in terms of the conditional change in the economic status. The law also provides a database on the particular time where poverty is most high due to the strict implementation of the Jim Crow segregated law. The segregate law has clearly provided disparity in every societal practice like education and labor industry. This leads to greater poverty on the black members as they are deprived of any benefit that leads to their economic disparity (Seidelman, et.al.).
The division also creates its effect on the income distribution by a factor of reserving better-paid jobs and position for whites and considering the black mainly for hard labor. The census of 1880-1900 also provides historical evidence in the area of black people that they are on large scale being discriminated in the southern region. This enhances the disparity in the economic disparity as it creates conditions on working in a better position to be based in the area of having status based on race factor.
The representation from the discriminatory law can be seen in the time of 1880-1990 which provides a clear indication of the racial difference that exists in this time due to the comparative law. The difference affected all the rights of the black as a member of the society where the difference is created in every area like education and labor practice which forms a clear empirical difference with all the members. The law also affected the societal difference in influence all the mobility factor that can lead to betterment in social status. This is mainly due to the segregation aspect in the education system which provides the base for any development. This trend in that particular time also is based on the difference in the labor market which has a clear gap effect based on the black-white labor market (Rodríguez-Pose, et.al.).
The Jim Crow law also provides consideration to the racial difference in the political system as it has provided the base for voting after registering for the process. This law also does not allow black to register them under this regulation. This leads to creating a clear gap in choosing a candidate based on race factor. This law also deprived them of any aspect of entering politics by not considering them to take part in political positioning. This aspect creates a clear empirical gap in the representation factor at a societal level which is considered as the main aspect of the prosperity in the societal practice mainly in having an identity as a group of society.
This also limits the transition of black children mainly in comparison with the white as they under this law are provided better opportunities in every aspect which starts from the education sector and extends till having representation for themselves in the society as an ethnic group.
The comparative race law also creates identity mainly in the area of racial discrimination related to the southern part of the US. This identity is based on the law that is implemented mainly in the aspect of discrimination to segregate the black people by having a law that provides them identity mainly in the area of the lower end of the society. This difference in terms of identity can be seen in various areas of the societal factor which creates a clear disparity in the distribution of resources mainly by giving due consideration to the factor of race and ethnic background (Dahis, et.al.).
The identity provides under the discriminatory law form base which has a difference in mobility from every aspect to move into a higher position. This had lead to have a higher income difference in the overall society based on discriminatory identity provided under the comparative law. This is mainly from the factor of having a large income distribution among the ethnic group which has a clear difference to the average income and human capital mainly in the area of a black ethnic group. The interaction was also made limited in this law which provides consideration to the have segregate system for the black people.
The segregation creates a base to provide identity in a much negative manner and also provides the main base for the history in the convergence of movement that is mainly based on equal civil rights for every group. The black-white difference also leads to various considerations for having a right equal to every group mainly related to the rights of black. The identity is to provide equal civil rights to black where no consideration to be given to any factor based on color or race. The discriminatory law at that time also has deprived the black of identity by segregating them in all societal activities be it the education sector or the labor market. The distribution is mainly in the area of
The Jim Crow law provided the slavery factor in the southern region where most of the Africans were residing. Slavery also creates a clear divisional factor in the cultural identity as it limits the black people with practicing their cultural values and norm. This has also restricted the growth of the original cultural practice into society as being deprived of equal rights. The value and belief system also see modification with that of the American culture as it is not allowed to practice cultures that have no identity in the society (Goldin, et.al.).
The discrimination for black people in terms of cultural identity is also made more in the slavery period which leads to a certain movement that provides a base for major changes that are now considered as the main part of the American culture. The cultural division is seen in all aspects of the societal practice where segregation is created under discriminatory law and limits the creation of identity by the practice of cultural values. The cultural division created by the discriminatory law leads to development of identity which has created a greater culture which leads to changing of the overall scenario by impacting all the American culture by creating a civil rights movement which leads to provision of equal rights for the black people as creation of a culture known as black American culture.
The black American culture in contemporary time is known as African American culture which has also greatly contributed to the development of the overall cultural base for the US. This is mainly due to the efforts that are considered in taking out movements for equal rights which also has led to the formation of distinct cultural identity. The cultural division created a historical experience that has generated and impact greatly on the overall identity provision to the black people.
The tradition based on economic practice also based on discriminatory law in the specific era of 1880-1900 in which most of the blacks were living in the southern parts of the US. They also were involved majorly in the slavery aspect and do not have much to change their economic conditions. This is mainly from the factor of lacking any economic resources to carry out mobility in upward areas so that it enhances the overall identity factor in the area of providing consideration to a better economic value system. The time of 1880 provides that the majority of the black people that are living in the south part were slaves or belong to the family of slaves which also enhances the overall economic disparity.
This also limits their mobility in terms of moving to better economic positions due to limited excess to resources both in terms of human capital and physical factor in terms of skill requirement. The civil war movement also has to lead to the passing of a bill in which compensation to slaves was provided mainly in the aspect of “40 acres and a mule” which was never implemented. This law provides that compensation should be provided to the former slaves by that does not occur. The black men in the particular era also majorly belong to the agriculture industry mainly in laborer form or tenant farmers that do not have their own land to grow.
This slavery and racial discrimination also have to lead to the creation of disparity existing mainly in the era of racial discrimination in which they are not considered for equal position or compensation as that of their white counterparts. The black were also discriminated against in segregation from as they have separate systems and institutes in every part like having different labor markets which have far fewer wages than white people.
The political condition in terms of social and economic conditions lacks any opportunity for black people in the south due to discriminatory law that is practice and implemented more in the area of racial difference. The political situation is also very bad which is evident from the factor of migration that has taken place during this era based on the ideology of race discrimination. Separate law was also in effect for African Americans which is mainly based on lynching on every minor act. This has greatly provided the need for political conditions where the black had their representation and cannot be treated in a harsh manner (Marchand, et.al.).
The political ideology under the discriminatory law is mostly based on the Jim Crow law which is a discriminatory law based on an ideology that very much provides racist aspects. This law also deprived the black people of political representation by not considering them for registering in the voting process. They also were not allowed to take active participation in political activities mainly to form a group to have their own political representation which provides them with equal consideration in every political and societal opportunity.
The discriminatory law in the south provides harsh conditions to the black with only considering them in the area of slavery. This has also led to the civil rights movement and great migration where the majority of the people belonging to the black community move to the northern part of the country which has far better political conditions and labor opportunities. The northern part also provides better consideration to the black by offering them incentives mainly in the form of free transportation and low-cost housing.
The southern part also does not have law that allow the black to have equal rights in any aspect of the political practice by depriving them of voting rights as well as giving no consideration to their representation factor which helps them in having a political representation of their own so that it helps in working for their civil rights in area of equal opportunity.
The time of 1880 sees more strict law which has deprived black people to have consideration for the voter process. This is mainly due to the factor of consideration of the registration in the election rules where they were excluded from the voter’s list. The increase restriction is mainly formed in the law area by forming a constitution through passing a bill at the state level which restricts black from taking part in any political activity. This disengagement was carried for more than half of a century in the south part where mainly the blacks are not given the right to represent themselves in the legislature.
The amendment in the constitution mainly in the electoral aspect of the voter registration process provides disfranchising and restriction to take part in the voting process. The law that was passed is mainly in the aspect of discriminatory law which focuses mainly on the segregation of the black people with that of the white and considered them mostly as second class citizens. They also are not allowed to form groups to have their representation in any political or societal aspect. This has lead to the creation of segregation in which they are not allowed to be considered for any work rather than just the slavery aspect.
The southern states law also creates segregation with passing the Jim Crow law which creates clear discrimination at every societal factor like in the area of education services, public facilities mainly in the area of political representation. This has to lead to increased political unrest by increasing discrimination against black from the factor of race riots and lynching. This also leads to the major historical movement in the aspect of great migration due to rising political instability in the southern region. This also is due to political representation which is neglected on the basis of racial discrimination.
The era of 1880 till 1900 is more based on the implementation of the Jim Crow law which is the major basis of racial discrimination. This law provides consideration to much negative aspect that is mainly seen as a segregation for the black members of the society. The law main feature is based on racial discrimination to be considered mainly in the aspect of ethnic division. The law mainly provides consideration to the slavery aspect and the segregation in which reservations are provided mainly for natives in all public facilities like the education and transport sector. This law also creates hurdles in the formation of racial discrimination in all aspects mainly in the political scenario.
The racial unacceptability of the black in political leadership area remains the major phenomenon regarding the practice of the law. This also has greatly formed the aspect of racism in all socio and economic factors which have greatly created inequality in regards to the right of the black people. This also provides hurdles in the overall benefit and social welfare consideration in terms of having representation in the politics so that opportunities are created in terms of employment, education and also having better political representation with equal rights.
The southern law which was passed mainly in the comparative law and race aspect under the name of Jim Crow which provides segregation to all the facilities in every social aspect has greatly influenced the leading factor in the area of political freedom. This law also in the coming times has led to the great migration which is the main outcome and the result of the overall discriminatory law that was passed mainly to provide racial difference to the overall exercise of power in the political sector which is greatly evident from deprivation of voting rights.
The comparative race and law 1880-1900 provides that racism is the main historical feature of the US south region. The era of this time has seen racial discrimination mainly in black people as they were deprived of legal rights and other privileges that are considered mainly as part of the equal rights and law. This is mainly due to the law of Jim Crow where benefits and rights are provided more on the basis of race.
This law focuses on the creation of segregation that has become the main feature of the era where discrimination is a practice in every social facility from electoral rights to the education system. This law does not provide black people with voting right by depriving them of the voter registration process. The discrimination is also considered in the area of giving them consideration only in the slavery factor and also having discriminatory law which is evident from the lynching punishment which is just limited to the black people.
- Akcigit, Ufuk, John Grigsby, and Tom Nicholas. The rise of american ingenuity: Innovation and inventors of the golden age. No. w23047. National Bureau of Economic Research, 2017.
- Anton, Jacqulyne. “Racial Ambiguity in the Borderlands: New Mexico’s African American Soldiers, 1860-1922.” History in the Making 12, no. 1 (2019): 11.
- Boyer, Paul S., Clifford E. Clark, Karen Halttunen, Joseph F. Kett, and Neal Salisbury. The enduring vision: A history of the American people. Cengage Learning, 2016.
- Dahis, Ricardo, Emily Nix, and Nancy Qian. Choosing Racial Identity in the United States, 1880-1940. No. w26465. National Bureau of Economic Research, 2019.
- Goldin, Claudia D. “Human capital.” (2016).
- Leonard, Thomas C. Illiberal reformers: race, eugenics, and American economics in the Progressive Era. Princeton University Press, 2017.
- Marchand, C. Roland. The American Peace Movement and Social Reform, 1889-1918. Princeton University Press, 2015.
- Montano, Robert. “Mexicans in the United States: A Historical Perspective, 1900-1942.” PhD diss., New York University, 2017.
- Rodríguez-Pose, Andrés, and Viola von Berlepsch. “Does population diversity matter for economic development in the very long term? Historic migration, diversity and county wealth in the US.” European Journal of Population 35, no. 5 (2019): 873-911.
- Seidelman, Raymond. Disenchanted realists: political science and the American crisis. Suny Press, 2015.